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Lebanon is on the northeastern edge of the Arabian Plate. Its western half, west of the Beqaa Valley, lies within the East Mediterranean Basin. This formed during the break-up of the Pangea super-continent in the mid-Permian to Middle Jurassic and led to a thick sequence of clastics and carbonates deposited in grabens.
During the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, the basin was a passive continental margin with normal faulting and subsidence. A carbonate shelf was deposited, alternating with clastics on the basin margin. In the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene the region experienced compression due to the convergence of the African and Arabian plates which led to inversion of the grabens, strike-slip faulting and uplift of the Lebanon mountains.
Along the Lebanon offshore margin and in the Beqaa Valley there are north-south trending faults that run semi-parallel to the Dead Sea Transform which accommodate the movement between the Levant basin area and the Arabian plate.
At the end of the Miocene, the Mediterranean Sea became isolated from the Atlantic Ocean, which led to deposition of thick evaporites. This was followed by inundation from the ocean and Pliocene to Recent sedimentation. The Levant basin covers the easternmost region of the Mediterranean Sea between Cyprus and the Nile Delta cone in Egypt. The basin contains up to 10,000 kms of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments above the rifted Triassic to Lower Jurassic sequence.
A number of large gas discoveries have been made in the deep waters of the Levant since 2009 in Israel, Cyprus and Egypt. The older sequences of the basin are structurally complex with compression and extension periods due to plate motion and salt tectonics. However the fields have reservoirs mostly within young flat-lying turbidite fan sequences dipping into the deep waters. No wells have been drilled offshore Lebanon but Globalshift believes it also has the potential for gas accumulations.
LEBANON: OFFSHORE BLOCKS
Globalshift.co.uk (source: USGS)