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South and East Africa
The geology of land-locked Botswana includes basement rocks of the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe craton which extends into northern Botswana.
To the east and southeast metamorphic rocks of Archaean age are covered by Karoo rocks and post-Cretaceous Kalahari Group sediments laid down in the Kalahari Basin underlying large parts of the centre of the country.
In the northwest more recent sediments belong to the Damara Belt.
The mining of diamonds is especially important to Botswana’s economy. There are more than 20 kimberlite pipes, mostly of Cretaceous age.
The country also produces copper, gold, nickel and cobalt whilst coal and soda ash are significant. Coal reserves lie in the east of the country and are potential sources of coal bed methane.
Globalshift considers Botswana to have no conventional oil and gas potential but unconventional gas volumes are present both as CBM and within Karoo shales.
No conventional oil or gas fields have been discovered in the country and very few wells have been drilled. Globalshift does not forecast any future conventional production of oil or gas from the country.
Unconventional Gas - is expoited at the Lesedi CBM Project. It is operated by Tlou Energy which owns prospecting Licenses extending for 8,500 sq kms in the Karoo-Kalahari Basin of southeastern Botswana. Operations have been ongoing since 2007.
Several exploration and appraisal work programs have identified significant gas resources and in 2016 Tlou Energy was selected by the Ministry of Energy and Water Resources (MMEWR) to develop a CBM power plant at the Project. The offtake agreement is expected to be for 50 MW. This is an expansion beyond the 10 MW initially envisaged as being fast-tracked for development. The Botswana government is targeting the incorporation of 100 MW of CBM power into its future generation supply plans.
Shale gas - potential has also been identified and licences are being evaluated by Karoo Energy along with CBM projects. Karoo has 100% ownership of 4 shale gas licences and two coal bed methane licences in southern Botswana.
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