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San Marino (the Most Serene Republic of San Marino) is a land-locked micro-state on the east of the Apennine Mountains encircled by Italy.

The country was founded as a monastic community in 301 AD by a stonemason called Marinus, from Arba in Croatia. It existed for hundreds of years subject to rule by the Roman Empire and its successors until, in 1631, independence was recognized by the Papacy.

In 1797 Napoleon promised to guarantee independence and during Italian unification in the 19th century, the country served as a refuge for many persecuted people. Because of this Garibaldi allowed the country to remain separate from the new Italian state.

During World War 1 San Marino remained neutral despite hostility from both Italy and Austria-Hungary. In World War 2 San Marino continued its neutral stance but in 1944 was briefly occupied by German forces who were defeated by the Allies in the Battle of San Marino.

Between 1945 and 1957 the state had a democratically elected communist government.

San Marino is the world's smallest republic by total area. It is not a member of the EU or Eurozone but uses the euro as its currency. It has an economy based on finance, industry, services and tourism.

San Marino Is a tiny land-locked enclave within the mountainous northern Apennines. It has a rugged terrain with the highest point being the summit of Monte Titano at 749 m.

Land-locked San Marion lies in the Apennine mountains where sediments are highly disrupted.

The geology is thus unfavourable for the accumulation of commercial volumes of oil and gas and Globalshift believes it is unlikely to achieve any production in the future.


Map and National Flag

Southern Europe

San Marino

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Land area (sq kms)

Oil prod (000s b/d)

Gas prod (bcm/yr)

Oil cons (000s b/d)

Gas cons (bcm/yr)


San Marino

0.03 mm






San Marino is governed by a constitution contained in 6 books written in the late 16th century. It is a parliamentary representative democratic republic with 2 Captains Regent as head of state and head of government.

The 60-member unicameral legislature is the Grand and General Council which elects the Captains Regent who serve a 6-month term.

There is no government department specifically responsible for oil and gas resources.

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