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Uganda (the Republic of Uganda) is landlocked, bordered to the east by Kenya, to the north by South Sudan, to the west by Congo-Kinshasa, to the southwest by Rwanda, and to the south by Tanzania.  

Uganda saw the arrival of Bantus from the west around 2,300 years ago, replacing nomadic hunter-gatherers. Empires were established which broke up into the Buganda, Toro, Ankole, and Busoga kingdoms that ruled the region intermittently for hundreds of years. Arab traders then moved inland in the 1830s followed in the 1860s by British explorers and the UK annexed Buganda to create the Uganda Protectorate in 1894. This was integrated with other chiefdoms creating the current country by 1914.

Uganda gained independence in 1962 after which many conflicts have occurred. In 1971 General Idi Amin seized power, carrying out mass killings and expelling Asians who had been recruited to work on the railway in the 1890s. Amin was overthrown following a war with Tanzania in 1979. The government has since changed many times, the country has fought in numerous conflicts, and it has suffered civil war in the north. It now receives condemnation of its anti-gay policies but the economy has recovered owing to its rich agricultural, mineral and oil resources.

Uganda lies on the East African Plateau averaging 1,100 m altitude and sloping gently to the Sudanese Plain in the north. It lies in the African Great Lakes region and also within the Nile basin.

It holds many large lakes such as Lake Kyoga in the centre and Lake Albert and Lake Edward shared with Congo-Kinshasa in the west. The south includes a substantial portion of Lake Victoria, shared with Kenya and Tanzania.

Uganda is land-locked and has no oil or gas production. Very few wells had been drilled in the country up to 2004 when an exploration campaign was started in the Albert Graben, in and adjacent to the Albert Lake, near the border with Congo-Kinshasa within a branch of the East African Rift.

Numerous oil fields have now been discovered in this region both onshore and within the lake. Oil production has been repeatedly delayed due to disagreements with regards tax and export volumes, and is now forecast by Globalshift to begin in 2020, rapidly rising over the subsequent 20 years.

Uganda currently consumes no gas but there are plans, coincident with oil developments, to build an infrastructure to use associated gas from its fields.

Geography, and oil and gas summary

South and East Africa


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Capital: Kampala

Population: 33.3 million     


Resting lions

Brief history of the country

Land area (sq kms)

Oil prod (000s b/d)

Gas prod (bcm/yr)

Oil cons (000s b/d)

Gas cons (bcm/yr)

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UGANDA - Map and National Flag

Government and NOCs

Uganda is a presidential republic, in which the President is both head of state and head of government elected to a 5-year term. The Cabinet includes the Vice President and Ministers. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the 332-member National Assembly of which 104 are nominated and the remainder are elected for 5-year terms.

The oil and gas industry is overseen by the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development. The Uganda National Oil Company (UNOC), also known as the National Oil Company of Uganda, is the NOC established in 2015. UNOC participates, on behalf of the state, in future production under existing PSCs with 3 oil companies (Tullow, Total and CNOOC) and in the planned refinery.